Straight from the shoulder means directly or forthrightly.

Put your shoulder to it – is “it” a tightly shut door?

All the cares of the world on your shoulders is an expression about worrying.  I try to pass my cares back to God, who is able to take care of them all.

A burden or weight off your shoulders is when a duty has been fulfilled or a worrying situation has reached a satisfactory outcome.

Elbows off the table is an instruction in table manners, which perhaps should have appeared in Last orders.

All joints on the table will be carved is a jocular version of the one above.  Personally, I don’t care for threats even when made in jest.

More power to your elbow!
This is encouragement in some work or other.

Elbow grease is not a sort of lotion.   It is hard manual work.  Use some elbow grease means put some effort into an activity, such as scrubbing a dirty utensil.

A funny bone is an elbow.  The Latin name for the upper bone in the arm is humerus.  Knocking an elbow accidentally can be particularly painful.  Is that why it is a funny bone?  Or is it humorous?

Strong-arm tactics include threats and bullying.

Don’t get your fingers burnt.
Good literal advice or a warning about not investing in something risky.

At one’s fingertips is ready for use.  My first piano teacher described another of her pupils as having all the classics at her fingertips!

Fisticuffs is fighting.

Keep your fingers crossed!
Hope for the best.  It is  a superstitious instruction and therefore completely unnecessary.

I had my fingers crossed behind my back…
…which gave me permission to tell a lie!  See Proverbs 30:7-9

Knuckle down means get to work.

Knuckle under is being submissive.

My hands are tied is a figurative expression used when someone would like to be involved, but has restraints on their actions due to circumstances.

Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot. Exodus 21:23-25

Jesus shows us a better way in Matthew 5:38-42